IN undertaking this new edition of lHonsiellr De Vattel’s treatise, it was not my the law of nature, the law of nations, and the civil law, are well known. ” The law. Cambridge Core – Political Theory – The Law of Nations – by Emmerich de Vattel / edited by Joseph Chitty. The great eighteenth-century theorist of international law Emer de Vattel (– ) was a key figure in sustaining the practical and theoretical influence of.

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When the homage leaves independency and sovereign authority in the administration of the state, and only means certain duties to the lord of the fee, or even a mere honorary acknowledgment, it does not prevent the state or the feudatory prince being strictly sovereign.

It is evident, that, by the very act of the civil or political association, each citizen subjects himself to the authority of the entire body, in every thing that relates to the common welfare. He is the depositary of the empire, and of the power of commanding whatever conduces to the public welfare; he ought, therefore, as a tender and wise father, and as a faithful administrator, to watch for the nation, and take care to preserve it, and render it more perfect,—to better its state, and to secure it, as far as possible, against every thing that threatens its safety or its happiness.

A crowd of servile courtiers easily persuade a proud monarch that the nation was made for him, and not he for the nation. He can neither govern the state, nor perform what the nation expects from him, if he be not punctually obeyed.

Utility of highways canals c. In the Law of Nations we must adhere to generals.

Any text you add should be original, not natons from other sources. This would be falling back into the state of nature, and rendering government impossible.

Unequal treaties and unequal alliances ibid An alliance with diminution of sovereignty may annul pre v. It provides at least a partial legal basis for modern conscription in the United States. Here again a very important question presents itself. The end or object of civil society is to procure for the citizens whatever they stand in need of for the necessities, the conveniences, the accommodation of life, and, in general, whatever constitutes happiness, — with the peaceful possession of property, a method of obtaining justice with security, and, finally, a mutual defence against all external violence.


All the subjects ot the two states at war are enemies ibid. What is the end of civil society. We have seen already that every political society must necessarily establish a public authority to regulate their common affairs, — to prescribe to each individual the conduct he ought to observe with a view to the public welfare, and to possess the means of procuring obedience.

Emer de Vattel – Wikipedia

By trading with foreigners, a nation procures such things as neither nature nor art can furnish in the country it occupies. As soon as vatteel prince is elected according bations the laws, he enters into the possession of all the prerogatives which those laws annex to his dignity. These annotated editions first in and their reissue with further notes by Edward Ingraham first in were based on the London edition.

There is another nation illustrious by its bravery and its victories.

But, sixthly, he is certainly above all civil penal laws, The majesty of a sovereign will not admit of his being punished like a private person; and his functions are too exalted to allow of his being molested under pretence of a fault that does not directly concern the government of the state.

Now, since right springs from obligation Prelim. Persuaded that nations or sovereign powers are subject to the authority of the law of nature, the observance of which he so frequently recommends to them,—that learned man, in fact, acknowledged a natural law of nations, which he somewhere calls the internal law of nations: The authority of all over each member, therefore, essentially belongs to the body politic, or state; but the exercise of that authority may be placed in different hands, according as the society may have ordained.

Emmerich de Vattel

The entire nation is then obliged to maintain that association; and as their preservation depends on its continuance, it thence follows that every nation is obliged to perform the duty of self-preservation. In short, it is from the constitution that those legislators derive their power: The vattek of the body politic over the members.

Sudden revolutions strike the imaginations of men: Subjects then have no right, in doubtful cases, to examine the wisdom or justice of their sovereign’s commands; this examination belongs to the prince: The nature of sovereignty, and the welfare of the state, will not permit citizens to oppose a prince whenever his commands appear to them unjust or prejudicial.


The king of Prussia is sovereign prince of Neufchatel in Switzerland, without that principality being in any manner united to his other dominions; so that the people of Neufchatel, in virtue of their franchises, may serve a foreign power at war with the king of Prussia, provided that the war be not on account of that principality. China has wisely prevented this abuse: It is manifest that rights of this kind cannot be lost by prescription, on account of their not being used, since prescription is only founded on consent legitimately presumed; and that, if I possess a right which is of such a nature that I may or may not use it, as I think proper, without any person having a right to prescribe to me on the subject, it cannot be presumed, from my having long forborne to use it, that I therefore intend to abandon it.

Another abuse injurious to agriculture is emmeroch contempt cast emmerjch the husbandman.

Online Library of Liberty

In this particular, England deserves to be held up as an example. The rights it derives from these obligations.

There are lqw enterprises that cannot be carried on without an energy that requires considerable funds, which surpass the ability of individuals. The custom of paying tribute was formerly very common, — the weaker by that means purchasing of their more powerful neighbour an exemption from oppression, or at that price securing his protection, without ceasing to be sovereigns. Each nation in fact oof that she has justice on her side in every dispute that happens to arise: The general law of that society nationx, that each individual should do for the others every thing which their necessities require, and which he can perform without neglecting the duty that he owes to himself: If a nation is obliged to preserve itself, it is no less obliged carefully to preserve all its members.

War a mode of acquisition