English translation of. Holy Akaranga Sutra. English translation by Hermann Jacobi taken from Contents: Introduction. Akaranga Sutra: First Book: 1. Knowledge of the weapon. 2. Conquest of the world. 3. Hot and cold. 4. Righteousness. 5. Essence of the. Gaina Sutras, Part I – The Akaranga Sutra, The Kalpa Sutra [transl; F. Max Muller Hermann Jacobi] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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They accordingly prepare, for the sake of one sort of Sramanas, lodgings, viz.

Holy Akaranga Sutra : Text 12 – Modes of speech

From all these facts we must conclude that the chronological position of the oldest parts of the Gaina literature is intermediate between the Pali literature and the composition of the Lalita Vistara.

If a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage come across a shallow water, they should first wipe their body from head to heels, then, putting one foot in the water and the other in the air, they should wade through the shallow water in a straight line. He who injures these earth-bodies does not comprehend and renounce the sinful acts; he who does not injure these, comprehends and renounces the sinful acts. That is the fourth rule for begging food.

Jaina Sutras, Part I

It treats of the akara, or conduct, which falls under the last of the four heads, or anuyogas, into which the sacred lore is divided, viz. I do not maintain that the sacred books of the Gainas were originally written in books, for the same argument which has been brought forward to prove that the Buddhist monks could have had no MSS.

Thus he who knows the sacred lore, recommends penance combined with carefulness. Adopting the akarya’s views, imitating his indifference for the outer worldmaking him the guide and adviser in all one’s matterssharing his abode, conquering sinfulnessone sees the truth; unconquered one should be one’s own master, having no reliance on anything in the world.

About this he is informed when he has understood and heard from the Revered One, or from the monks, the faith to be coveted. For after Bhadrabahu, only ten out of the fourteen Purvas were known. Their prevalence over other rivals was certainly due in some degree to their connection with the chief families of the country.

April Akqranga how and when to remove this template message. But it is different with us, who are frequently reduced to guessing at the meaning of technicalities which a Yati could explain at once.

Weber [1] assigns as the probable cause of the Drishtivada being lost, that the development of the Svetambara sect had arrived at a point where the diversity of its tenets from those embodied in that book became too visible to be passed over. If we may judge about the distance in time of the questionable date from either limit by the greater or less resemblance of the oldest Gaina works in verse with such of the Southern and Northern Buddhists as regards metrical or stylistic peculiarities, we should place the beginning of the Gaina literature nearer the time of the Pali literature, rather than that of the Northern Buddhists.


When a monk or a nun knows that at a distance of more than half a yogana, a festive entertainment is going on, they should not resolve to go there for the sake of the festive entertainment. Even thus he will in due time put an end to existence. But if it has long ago been used for washing, has acquired a new taste, has altered its taste or nature, and has been strained, it may be accepted, for it is pure and acceptable. The unclothed one, who effects scarcity of his wants or of his karmanbears these and various other hardships.

But having done so, it would be a second folly of the weak-minded not to own it. The living world is afflicted, miserable, difficult to instruct, and without discrimination. Now follows the seventh rule for begging food. When he has become zealous for the law, he should never be careless, knowing pain and pleasure in their various forms.

For it might be assumed that the Nirgrantha copied the Buddhist Bhikkhu, who himself was but a copy of the Samnyasin. There are beings living in the earth, living in grass, living on leaves, living in wood, living in cowdung, living in dust-heaps, jumping beings which coming near fire fall into it. Now, granted for argument’s sake, that they really did what they are charged with, they must have proceeded with the utmost dexterity, making use of, and slightly altering all occasional hints about the Niganthas and Nataputta which they were able to hunt up in their ancient scriptures, inventing new facts, and fabricating documents of their own, which to all, not in the secret, would seem just as trustworthy as those of their opponents.

A layman might, for the sake of a mendicant, make small doors large, or large ones small; put beds from a level position into a sloping one, or from a sloping position into a level one; place the beds out of the draught or in the draught; cutting and clipping the grass outside. Though some know the misery of the world, have relinquished their former connections, have given up case, live in chastity, and, whether monk or layman, thoroughly understand the law, they are not able to persevere in a religious life.

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not accept water which has been used for watering flour or sesamum or rice, or any other such-like water which has been recently used for washing, which has not acquired a new taste, nor altered its taste or nature, nor has been strained; for such-like water is impure and unacceptable.

This mendicant who knows the time, the strength of himselfthe measure of all thingsthe practice [2], the akarsnga for begging,the conduct, the religious precepts [3], the true condition of the donor or hearerwho disowns all things not requisite for religious purposes [4], who is under no obligations, he proceeds securely on the road to final liberation after having cut off both love and hate.


It is with these Kalyanakas that the Lives of the Ginas are chiefly concerned, and this fact seems to prove that the custom of mentioning the Kalyanakas in the worship of the Tirthakaras is a very old one; for otherwise it would be impossible to conceive what could have induced an author to treat so largely of so barren a subject as has been done in the Kalpa Sutra.

Examining karman and the root of karman, viz. This is the whole outfit of one who wears clothes. The fact that the same subjects were treated in suyra second book probably occasioned the loss of the Mahaparinna, ‘because it was superfluous [2]. He who conquers one passionconquers many; and he who conquers many, conquers one. This certainly has been declared by the sage [1]. But the Venerable One desired nothingof the kind; strong in control, he suffered, despising all shelter.

But if he has inadvertently sutrq it, he should not say: This subject has truly been explained. Therefore he is near death. Accordingly the Nirgranthas were probably an old sect at the time of Buddha, and Nataputta only the reformer of the Gaina church, which may have been founded by the twenty-third Tirthakara, Parsva. There are jumping beings which, coming near wind, fall into it. How far is it to that village or scot-free town.


There remains another possibility, but a still more improbable one, viz. All past, present, and future Arhats have taught and declared, teach and declare, will teach and declare these four kinds of speech; and they have explained all those things which are devoid of intellect, which possess colour, smell, taste, touch, which are subject to decay and increase, which possess various qualities.

The great heroes i. This thief enters or does not akadanga, he hides himself or does not hide himself, he creeps in or does not creep in, he speaks or does not speak; he has taken it, another has akatanga it, it is taken from that man; this is the thief, this is the accomplice, this is the murderer, he has done so’.

Suyra who knows these causes of sin relating to animals, is called a reward-knowing sage.

Akaranga Sutra | Great Thoughts Treasury

Thus some incur great danger. I cannot concur in Professor Weber’s opinion, seeing that the Digambaras also have lost the Purvas, and the Angas to boot. He is an apostate ascetic! He seems to have lived in the house of his parents till they died, and his elder brother, Nandivardhana, succeeded to what akarznga they had.