Abstract. A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic. J Am Vet Med Assoc. Jan 1;(1) Metabolic alkalosis in cattle. Easley R. PMID: ; [Indexed for MEDLINE]. Publication Types: Letter. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. Dec 1;76(23) [Pathogenesis of alkalosis and acidosis in ruminants]. [Article in German]. Slanina L. PMID:

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This section is empty. Remember that changes in serum proteins mostly albumin may impact the AG and should be considered when using these guidelines. A titration or high anion gap acidosis is a primary acid-base disorder i. Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide MgO product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate MgSO 4.

Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal—fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology. You can help by adding to it. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration pHbicarbonate ion concentration [HCO 3 -] and base excess were 7. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med.

Retrieved from ” https: A guide to interpreting blood gas results.

Open in a separate window. Note that it is incorrect to use this term for a single primary disturbance with the appropriate compensatory response.

Severe dehydrationand the consumption of alkali are other causes.

[Pathogenesis of alkalosis and acidosis in ruminants].

For example, an acidemia indicates that there is an acidosis and it is the dominant disturbance. Also, do not over-interpret mild changes in electrolytes or other test results; no analyzer or test is perfect! If the bicarbonate and base excess are low and the pCO 2 is high, it indicates a mixed primary metabolic acidosis low bicarbonate or base excess and primary respiratory acidosis high pCO 2.


Measurement of chloride and interpretation of changes in chloride. For instance, if there is a clinical disease causing hypoventilation in a dog and the dog is acidemic or pH is trending low towards acidemiawith a high pCO 2then there is a primary respiratory acidosis with a secondary or compensating metabolic alkalosis.

[Pathogenesis of alkalosis and acidosis in ruminants].

A respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. If the pCO 2 is high, it indicates a primary respiratory acidosis. A metabolic acidosis is the most common acid-base disturbance encountered in sick small animals, horses and camelids. As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteinssuch as albuminbecome more ionized into anions.

Metabolic alkalosis in cattle.

Normal renal function is also required for an animal to be able to compensate for ruminannts primary respiratory acidosis. A mixed acid-base disturbance is defined as the presence of more than one primary disturbance.

Note that pneumonia alone unlikely to cause a respiratory acidosis since pCO 2 diffuses so readily across alveolar walls unless the lung involvement is extensive or there is concurrent respiratory muscle fatigue from a prior hypoxic or pain-induced hyperventilation.

Mixed disorder of acid-base balance. A metabolic alkalosis is a common acid-base abnormality in ruminants with abomasal outflow obstruction e. Metabolic alkalosis is caused by:. Examples of acids produced in the body are lactic acid from anaerobic metabolismketones diabetes mellitus, ketosisand acids phosphates [H 2 PO 4sulfates [H 2 SO 4 ] normally excreted by the kidneys that are produced from amino acid metabolism.

Titration metabolic acidosis ketoacidosis, uremic acidosis, lactic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis vomiting of gastric contents frequently accompanies these disorders. Remember compensation does not usually correct pH to normal and over-compensation does not occur.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. HCO 3 — BE. Administration of NaHCO 3 e. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Note, that a respiratory disturbance cannot be detected from a biochemical panel and a respiratory disturbance does not alter BE.


This can occur with loop and thiazide diuretics for more information, see renal physiology page relating to sodium absorption or excess sweating in horses lose potassium chloride. This page was last edited on 27 Juneat Views Read Edit View history.

Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ionsand the related excretion of bicarbonate[ citation needed ] both of which lower blood pH. This is very effective so minimal changes in pH occur if the body is keeping up or the acid-base abnormality is mild. D ICD – Radiology Interventional radiology Nuclear medicine Pathology Anatomical pathology Clinical pathology Clinical chemistry Clinical immunology Cytopathology Medical microbiology Transfusion medicine.

In general, primary disturbances can be distinguished from secondary or compensatory responses by the pH and degree and direction of change of the acid-base results. Pathogenesis of ruminant lactic acidosis.

Whether a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is primary or secondary to a respiratory acidosis requires clinical assessment of the patient and knowledge of the underlying disease e. Abstract A study was designed to compare the alkalosks alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid magnesium oxide and a saline cathartic magnesium sulphate. Related links Laboratory detection: Diseases or drugs that inhibit ruminante medullary respiratory center also produce a profound respiratory acidosis, e.

There are four primary types of acid-base disorders, which the body responds to compensates urminants or corrects. Thus, titration or consumption of bicarbonate by a non-volatile non-chloride containing acid results in a high anion gap metabolic acidosis.