The first introduction to the field of Arabic sociolinguistics, this book Reem Bassiouney For the layperson, there is only one language called ‘Arabic’. For the. The first introduction to the field of Arabic sociolinguistics, this book discusses major trends in research on diglossia, code-switching, Reem Bassiouney. This introduction to major topics in the field of Arabic sociolinguistics Reem Bassiouney is an assistant professor of Arabic linguistics at Georgetown University.

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For example, in MSA dual number is marked throughout: Her data was gathered in and the interviewers spoke Moroccan Arabic to the informants. Furthermore, Ferguson did not really discuss the sociolinguistic significance of the competing varieties.

Full text of “22 Arabic Sociolinguistics Topics In Diglossia, Gender, Identity, And Politics”

Therefore, this example poses problems for the ML hypoth- esis, but again the 4-M model can save this example. These three theories are the accommodation theory propounded by Giles et al. It is usually read aloud from texts and, if the speaker is highly skilled, may also be used in the commentary to the text. The socially prestigious Sunni speakers are not sociolinghistics much by the standard, while the speech of the low-status Shiite speakers is relatively more influenced by the standard a: In fact, in the Arab world switching between Arabic and a foreign language has been called by one Arab writer, according to Suleiman It can be used with no particular social motivation behind it; although for an outsider on this com- munity it does carry a social message, for an insider it is the norm.

In general, functional approaches to social phenomena necessarily represent incomplete taxonomies, and we could even expect them to, eociolinguistics in contrast to formal taxonomies, which begin with an assumption arabuc comprehensiveness and exclusivity of categories, functional taxonomies begin with the assump- tion that new functions may be uncovered and are generally expected to be.

In these matters native speakers and linguists can disagree. However, such a claim is only true for variationist sociolinguists, not the many who have studied language policy, code-switching and language ideology.

But note also that in this example some system morphemes are difficult to classify as belonging to one code rather than another. Note that I choose one dialect within Egypt, Cairene Arabic, and one dialect within Lebanon, the dialect of Beirut and so on and so forth. This finding again violates the government theory, although Sankoff et al. According to Gumperz and Hymes 1 theoretical linguists analyse linguistic competence while sociolinguists analyse communicative competence.


For example, in the sentence ‘I think that he will come’, the CP is ‘that he will come’ This idea will become clearer later when examples are analysed. The following example, quoted from Myers-Scotton It bassiounfy difficult to understand how the 4-M model works without concrete examples.

Second, if it is still difficult for linguists to agree about the different levels used even in a single community, how much more difficult could it be to try to describe what the rules are for inter-communal communication?

All the mixed forms that occur in the data can be analysed as follows: The ML theory in its basic framework does not rely on baasiouney languages which happen to be quite similar, like Spanish and English, arabix example, but is nassiouney of being used with languages which are quintessentially different in their content mor- phemes and system morphemes, like Arabic and English.

The idea that different Arabs from different communi- ties modify their language when they speak together is worthy of attention since it is presumably a rule-governed, not a random, process. Structures, Functions, and Varieties. According to Gumperz a: I then asked him how he spoke Cairene Arabic so fluently, and he seemed a bit embarrassed and said to me ‘I speak Cairene Arabic to you.

The division in terms of Bedouin and sedentary reflects the historical settlements sociolinghistics the area as well as the language shift and change that have been taking place. It can basssiouney a negative feeling or attitude towards a rival group, and it is one of the strategies used in maintaining and reinforcing boundaries between groups. A speaker may not be sure about the social arena: He is expected by the audience to speak in a formal code.

Arabic Sociolinguistics

In diglossic com- munities there is a highly valued H high variety which is learned in schools and is not used for ordinary conversations. According to him, ESA 10 is not a separate variety but is ‘created’ and ‘maintained’ by the interaction between the written language and the vernacular.

Gumperz gave credit to the individual in code-switching in an unprecedented manner. They claim that in social interactions speakers desire their listener’s social approval and modify their speech in the direction of the listener’s code to get this approval. However, the survival of an upper-Egyptian dialect amidst all the pressure from a highly centralised Egypt for all Egyptians to speak Cairene Arabic is indeed worth investigating. In Arabic adjectives follow nouns, while in French they can either follow or precede the noun.


Each chapter starts with a discussion of classic work conducted on the west and then moves on to the Arab world. Thus one can posit that structural constraints on diglossic switching in Egypt can be explained in the light of a predictable vassiouney in which system morphemes occur from both codes: Cultured and well-educated people also use it when talking in a relaxed fashion about non-serious topics.

Thus, the Arabic word for ‘low’, munxafida, agrees with it in gender and is also feminine. In other words, it is becoming the medium of instruction in Egyptian classrooms. We started a conversation, and he then told me that he comes from upper Egypt al-sa?

Arabic Sociolinguistics | Georgetown University Press

I tran- scribe it as an Egyptian would read it; with the arabix rather than the j. You just need someone to cure you. This seems to be a structure that occurs in Tunisia arbic not in Egypt. Metaphorical code- switching, on the other hand, is motivated by the individuals themselves, and is related to the individuals’ perception of and presentation of themselves in relation to the external factors, like setting, topic or social situation.

I assume that the overlap between H and L existed bwssiouney at the time when Ferguson wrote his articlesince Arabic, as any other language, is dynamic rather than static and unchanging.

Let us consider the following example that poses problems for the ML hypothesis: However, other linguists like Myers-Scotton Cities in the Arab world do not necessarily speak an urban dialect.

English is associated with these, as in the example below These forms are predictable in the sense that they tend to occur frequently and regularly when speakers switch between MSA and ECA.