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Soils data are much more sparse. Australia believes that while there are uncertainties associated with the definition and measurement of sinks, there are adequate methods available if rigorously applied to enable sinks to be included in a QELRO. Furthermore, by narrowing the definition of anthropogenic to direct activities that change carbon stocks after the target year, many of the uncertainties associated with the land-use change and forestry methodologies are reduced.


Any new methodologies, particularly those that deal with the issue of uncertainties, that are developed and agreed to at a Meeting of the Parties, and available within an appropriate time frame prior to the first budget period, would apply to the first and subsequent budget periods, notwithstanding any future agreements by the Parties.

Applying such criteria Parties should, on a case by case basis, justify why their actions qualify as removal through anthropogenic enhancement of sinks. At this time Canada believes that no limit should be placed on anthropogenic sinks in a QELRO since the goal of the Convention is to reduce atmospheric concentrations and how that is achieved should not be predetermined.

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Any approach that is restricted to new activities is not only easier to verify because of an increase in precision afforded by real and measurable data, but is also more equitable by providing a level starting point. All quantifiable anthropogenic sinks should be included, subject to the decisions of MOP1.


It asks that an uncertainty assessment be conducted and summarised as far as possible for each major part of the inventory. See response to question 1 above. The issue of uncertainty 3 should be examined in the broader context of all gases and all anthropogenic sources and sinks.

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Inclusion of sinks in a QELRO naturally implies inclusion in both the reference year and in the budget period. Any new IPCC methods would only apply to a second budget period or subsequent target. Establisment of the Permanenet Secretariat.

None, please see paragraph 3.

The review process has to be comprehensive, however, to ensure consistency and comparability. Australia further believes adoption of the comprehensive approach for the first budget year is necessary because. This issue has not been adequately dealt with. Nitrous oxide from industrial processes is known as accurately as energy related CO 2although nitrous oxide from soils may be uncertain to an order of magnitude.

While the term human induced has been used as a substitute for anthropogenic and has found widespread acceptance for emissions from industrial processes and fossil fuel combustion, it is not so easily applied to forestry and sinks, which are essentially natural processes.

Conservation of Leatherback Turtles Dermochelys coriacea. The objective of the Convention Article 2 implies that greenhouse mitigation action should cover areas that impact on the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Text of the Convention. Nevertheless, there are methodologies to enable estimates of emissions to be made on a standardised basis. Procedures for Cases Where Exceptions Exist. Should any “national system” 2r under Article 4 give special consideration to sinks.

For example the quality of activity data in energy use is high, and the relationships between activity and emissions are comparatively simple, the confidence criteria are more stringent than in other sectors.

The handling of sources and sinks vop3 reflect xop3 relative weight between these two in a country’s greenhouse profile. Australia views sinks as an integral part of Article 5. The guidelines ask that an uncertainty assessment be conducted and summarised as far as possible for each major part of the inventory.


It states that “Each Party shall Amount of sinks in each country should be equal or greater than the total amount of emissions of that country per year. Drawing on the wording in these articles, the Berlin Mandate also specifically states article Co3 2 a “This process will, inter alia, a aim Man can enhance the carbon dioxide uptake of these sinks through direct actions, however.

Should any “national system” established under Article 4 give special consideration to sinks? Conservation of Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta. In the co;3 sectors, the levels of uncertainties may be higher than for other sectors. Canada would also like to propose that Parties provide a quantitative estimate of the uncertainties associated with their greenhouse gas inventories using appropriate methodologies to be developed based on the work of the IPCC and other expert Groups and that the Parties adopt these methodologies at a Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto agreement prior to the first budget period.

The answer is governed by the agreed position of the EU, which recognises the desirability of eventually taking into account sinks in QELROs, once the modalities for doing so can be agreed. Uncertainty is inherent in estimations of GHG emissions and sinks from all sectors.

Yes, it is vital to have good national accounting systems for anthropogenic enhancement of sinks. Establishment of the Pro Tempore Secretariat. Conference of the Parties. If in practice MOP1 decided to omit some sinks from early budget periods eg because of data availability or incompleteness of the IPCC methodologyinclusivity would still need to be co;3 to avoid the perverse incentive of planting trees on soil types which then become sources.

Article 5 of the Chairman’s text states “Each Party included in Annex