J Vol. XIV No. 3 September Dependency Theory: A Review Article. James L. Dietz. Both Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Andre Gunder Frank have been. something that has internal origin. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his. “dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his “ dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as divided into a core of wealthy.

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An unequal and dependent relationship What is dspendency forgotten in world history is the fact that before colonialism started, there were a number of well-functioning political and economic systems around the globe, most of them based on small-scale subsistence farming.

Under colonial rule, colonies are effectively seen as part of the mother country and are not viewed as independent entities in their own right.

Instead, Andre Gunder Frankthe leading dependency theorist, suggests that lack of development is because Western nations have deliberately under-developed them. As a result of the unequal distribution of power and resources, some countries have developed at a faster pace than others.

In the older of the two, plantation agriculture, which originated in colonial timesmost of the surplus goes to the landowners, who use it to emulate the consumption patterns of wealthy people in the developed world; much of it thus thfory to purchase foreign-produced luxury items —automobiles, clothes, etc. Moreover, many LDCs find it difficult to achieve full economic independence because many are overdependent on either one or two primary products or Western demand for those products.

In their approach, there is a distinction made between guncer economic and political spheres: Breaking away from dependency.

As a case rfank, Frank focuses on the economy of Brazil and describes how its capital, Sao Paulo, became one of the largest and most developed industrial hubs in Latin America. Many leaders in African countries adopted dependency theory, arguing that and developing political movements that aimed to liberate Africa from western exploitation, stressing nationalism rather than neo-colonialism.

Following the Korean War, North Korea pursued a policy of import substitution industrialization as suggested by dependency theory, while South Korea pursued a policy of export-oriented industrialization as suggested by comparative advantage theory. First World countries exploited the colonies for cheap food, raw materials and labour.


Dependency Theory ~ ReviseSociologyReviseSociology

The more recent kind of economic activity in the periphery is industry—but dependehcy a particular kind. Market economists cite a number of examples in their arguments against dependency theory. Allen, dependency theory’s claims are “debatable”, and that the protectionism that was implemented in Latin America as a solution ended up failing. LDC governments may find themselves pressurised into accepting MNC investment, into making internal political changes and ensuring LDC support for Western strategic interests, e.

He believes that the hegemonic position of the United States is very strong because of the frajk of its financial markets and because it controls the international reserve currency — the US dollar.

The sine qua non of the dependency relationship is not the difference in technological sophistication, as traditional gudner theorists believe, but rather the difference in financial strength between core and peripheral countries—particularly the inability of peripheral countries to borrow in their own currency.

Quick revise The neo-Marxist dependency theory rejects the view that the people of LDCs are responsible for the failure of their societies to develop. Reflections on Imperialism and Resistance. As a result of this some colonies actually became ffank on their colonial masters for food imports, which of course resulted in even more profit for the colonial powers as this food had to be purchased with the scant wages earnt by the colonies.

At the forefront of this type of exploitation are the multinational companies MNCs. What seemed like spectacular long-run growth theoty in the end turn out to depednency just a short run cyclical spurt after a long recession.

Historical exploitation — slavery and colonialism Frank argued that the trade in slavery resulted in tremendous profits for both slave-traders framk plantation owners in the 18th century. Baran in with the publication of his The Political Economy of Growth. All of this resulted in huge social changes in the colonial regions: Archived from the original PDF on 17 March India’s example seems to contradict dependency theorists’ claims concerning comparative advantage and mobility, as much as its economic growth originated from movements such as outsourcing — one of the most mobile forms of capital transfer.

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Despite extensive investment and aid, some LDCs have experienced little or no economic growth. In theorg Western governments including the UK announced that they were looking at ways in which LDC debt could be cancelled or reduced.

This, however, resulted in sanctions being applies by America which limited trade with the country, holding its development back.

Andre Gunder Frank & Dependency Theory

Constructivism Modern constructivism Post-modern constructivism Feminist constructivism. In Rwanda for example, the Belgians made the minority Tutsis into the ruling elite, giving them power over the majority Hutus.

It is usually carried out by foreigners, although often in conjunction with local interests. Exploitation continued via neo-colonialism — which describes a situation where European powers no longer have direct political control over countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa, but they continue to exploit them economically in more subtle ways.

Modernization, Dependency, and World-Systems Theory. Finally, Frank argues that Western aid money is another means whereby rich countries continue to exploit poor countries and keep them dependent on them — aid is, in fact, often in the term of qndre, which come with conditions attached, such as requiring that poor countries open up their markets to Western corporations.

Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia articles with style issues from January All articles with style issues All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from June A good example of this is in India in the ss where cheap imports of textiles manufactured in Britain undermined local hand-weaving industries.

The Center countries controlled the technology and the systems for generating technology. The third-world debt crisis of the s and continued stagnation in Africa and Latin America in the s caused anddre doubt as to the feasibility or desirability of “dependent development”.

It was precisely this process that Ghandi resisted as the leading figure of the Indian Independence movement.