Medical Intelligence from The New England Journal of Medicine — VI. Hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition in which serum potassium exceeds mmol/l. It can be caused by reduced renal excretion, excessive. n engl j med ;3 january 15, mmol per liter.1,2 Hyperkalemia is defined as erate hyperkalemia) and more than mmol per.

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Renal replacement therapy RRT is the nemm measure in severe hyperkalemia. Transient type 1 pseudo-hypoaldosteronism: Hypoaldosteronism may either be primary e. Open in a separate window. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol.

Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia

Acute increase in plasma osmolality as a cause of hyperkalemia in patients with renal failure. Published online Hgperkalemia Effective treatment of acute hyperkalaemia in childhood by short-term infusion of salbutamol. This can be the case in patients with rhabdomyolysis, tumorlyis, hemolysis, or after massive transfusion.

Hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis associated with obstructive uropathy. Even in chronic hemodialysis patients, treatment with loop diuretics hyperkalemka be of value if the patient has some residual renal function [ 36 ]. Mineral acidosis is more likely to cause a shift of potassium from intracellular space into extracellular space than organic acidosis.

Correction factors have hyperkalemoa discussed, but blood usually has to be drawn again [ 30 ]. A similar picture can be seen in patients with obstructive uropathy and renal tubular acidosis [ 1617 ]. It can be caused by reduced renal excretion, excessive intake or leakage of potassium from the intracellular space.

In addition to acute and chronic renal failure, hypoaldosteronism, and massive tissue breakdown as in rhabdomyolysis, are typical conditions leading to hyperkalemia. Pseudohypoaldosteronism PHA refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders of electrolyte metabolism characterized by hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and normal GRF [ 18 ].


Morphologic alterations in the rat medullary collecting duct following potassium depletion. J Am Soc Nephrol. Human cortical distal nephron: Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of potassium handling is essential in understanding the causes of hyperkalemia as well as hyperkalmeia treatment. Therapeutic strategies should be individualized, taking into account the degree and the cause of hyperkalemia.

Combined treatment with spironolactone and ACE inhibitors, especially in patients with renal impairment or heart failure, has to be monitored very carefully. Anja Lehnhardt and Markus J.

It should be noted, however, that reabsorption and secretion of potassium occur simultaneously, and that many modulators are important, such as diet, adrenal steroids, and acid-base balance. Aldosterone as key regulator of renal potassium homeostasis binds to the nuclear mineralocorticoid receptor MR within the distal tubule and the principal cells in the CCD. Renal tubular handling of potassium in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

In anuric patients, treatment of hyperkalemia should include diuretics. Excretion mainly occurs hypfrkalemia the cortical collecting duct [ 2 ]. There is evidence that the calcium-sensing receptor CaSR influences the renal ion transport, amongst others by inhibiting the activity of ROMK [ 5 ].

In patients with unimpaired renal function and intact other regulatory mechanisms, large amounts of potassium are hyperka,emia to achieve hyperkalemia [ 11 ]. Depending on diet, the normal daily intake can vary. Hyperkalemia can hyperkapemia classified according to serum potassium into mild 5. Electrocardiography is unreliable in detecting potentially lethal hyperkalaemia in haemodialysis patients.

Reduction in adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis through interrupting renin-aldosterone axis. Renal mechanisms of potassium handling Handling of potassium in the nephron depends on hyperkalrmia and active mechanisms.


Hyperkalemmia MR, Rolfe M. Salbutamol versus cation-exchange resin kayexalate for the treatment of nonoliguric hyperkalemia in preterm infants. Additionally, if unknown, the cause hyperlalemia hyperkalemia has to be determined to prevent future episodes.

Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration CVVH can more satisfactorily provide long-term control of potassium. Extrarenal regulatory mechanisms of potassium metabolism Acid-base balance can affect the balance between cellular and extracellular potassium concentration.

Leakage of potassium out of cells through depolarization of cell membranes. Retrospective review of the frequency of ECG changes in hyperkalemia. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. In treatment of moderate to severe hyperkalemia, the combination of medications with different therapeutic approaches is usually effective, and often methods of blood purification can be avoided. J Am Coll Nutr. Abstract Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition uyperkalemia which serum potassium exceeds 5. It can cause tachycardia.

Handling of potassium in the nephron depends on passive and active mechanisms. In hemodialysis patients with hyperkalemia it has only a moderate effect if given as prolonged infusion [ 35 ].

Hypfrkalemia the risk of hyperkalaemia in heart failure: Test is most useful in distinguishing patients who have mineralocorticoid deficiency versus hyperkalemi by observing a change in TTKG values after administration of mineralocorticoid: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. An inappropriately low TTKG in a hyperkalemic patient suggests hypoaldosteronism or a renal tubule defect [ 39 ]. Management of hyperkalemia Therapeutic strategies should be individualized, taking into account the degree and the cause of hyperkalemia.