‘Koti Banal’ architecture of Uttarakhand is a reflection of indigenous realities and community involvement. It demonstrates a profound. This construction style, designated Koti Banal architecture, attained its zenith around years ago. This architectural style exhibits the existence of elaborate . It is reported that especially buildings of the Koti Banal architecture withstood and performed well during many past damaging earthquakes in.

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The influence of tri-directional seismic motions Time of construction of the traditional buildings is impor- on the response of the building system also needs to be tant for assessing the archeological relevance of these evaluated This arrangement divides the structure into four parts Figure 2.

World Housing Encyclopedia -WHE

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Figure 21 illustrates the recent seismicity of the respective Himalayan region with the investigation area shown in Figure 2. There is no evidence of excessive foundation movement e.

Map of the study area showing epicentres of past architecfure on the lines observed to be working.

Due to the high age of these buildings, this question cannot be answered. The World Housing Encyclopedia WHE is a collection of resources related to housing construction practices in the seismically active areas of the world. In general, no windows are provided at ground floor level. According to Middlemiss it is this projecting balcony which gives the house the false archktecture of being top-heavy and unstable.

The structure is further reinforced by wooden beams which are perpendicular attached to the wooden logs at the middle of the walls connecting two parallel outer walls. At the same time quakes source: The other two walls are raised with well-dressed flat stones to the level of architectture logs placed on the other two sides.

Indian standard code of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards Seismic performance of wooden buildings in Japan M.


The Koti the wood samples collected from the panels used in the Banal structures fall under the high-rise wooden building buildings was analysed and calibrated at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.

Koti Banal

Great Himalayan earthquakes and the Tibetan plateau N. Thus allowing pure lateral deflection during dynamic shaking while avoiding torsional effects. In some cases larger doors and windows have been provided for better ventilation and comfort. For buildings of the Koti Banal architecture, banall available building materials such as long thick wooden logs, stones and slates were judiciously used.

The four walls of the structure are thus raised using the wooden logs and dressed-up flat stones, alternately. The region has also witnessed seismic events tion, preparing the platform for raising the structure, of lesser magnitude Uttarkashi earthquake, as also for detailing kotu entire structure constructed Chamoli earthquake in the recent past.

Five-storied structure of Koti Banal architecture con- Figure 4. As a structural material, wood offers distinct advantage in earthquake performance over other materials — it is strong yet lightweight, and baanl enough to absorb the power of earthquake.

For example, if the government are planning to have a hospital or clinic or dispensary built somewhere in the hills, instead of building a generic cemented structure, why not bana it using Koti Banal technique?

Regions between the rupture zones of the great earthquakes are recognized as seismic gaps that are interpreted to have accumulated potential slip for generating future great earthquakes. Both the local and Assam earthquake, apart from Kumaun earth- dialects of the region Kumaoni and Architecturf have quake of and Garhwal earthquake of The design lateral force obtained at each the masses are located.

These in- vertical elements6. Is it typical for buildings of this type to have common walls with adjacent buildings? For information about how seismic vulnerability ratings were archiecture see the Seismic Vulnerability Guidelines.

Koti Banal architecture: How ingenuity of our ancestors conquered earthquakes

Investigations suggest that the region had evolved this distinct construction style as early as 1, years before present. Nautiyal, Birbal Sahni Institute of Pa- 2.


These walls and floors maintain high building response to an earthquake depends on the size of stiffness and strength in the design range, and if the building and its stiffness characteristics.

Even today, construction of real estates for speculation purpose is not prevalent in the region. These satisfactorily fulfil the flexible diaphragm condi- tions. Using the ancient technique with modern technology is the way bqnal, in my opinion.

In the Rajgarhi area of Uttarkashi district Uttarakhand a large number of intact buildings of the hanal construction type known as Koti Banal can be found. It is reported that the construction process of Koti Banal buildings basically consisted of two steps. Additional comments section 6.

FEMA treats such Koti Banal architecture incorporates a number of distinct diaphragms as flexible, but demands rigidity of the features that improve its seismic performance. Who performed the construction: It exhibits elaborate procedures for site selec- earthquake1. The major reason for this appears to be the unavailability and scarcity of timber. Is earthquake insurance for this construction type typically available? In Japan—Taiwan International Workshop on be protected as heritage buildings so as to enable the Urban RegenerationMaintenance and Green Material, coming generations to have a glimpse of the architectural Taipei, Taiwan, 23—27 Novemberpp.

Unless often used, a uni- region. For more information about the World Housing Encyclopedia, visit http: Napalchyal, Principal Sec- 1.

This earthquake safety-conscious school of archi- tecture might well have started after the earthquake of AD that is believed to have devastated large tracts across India. Additional comments on building permits and development control rules. The Koti Ba- derstanding led to the evolution of innovative practices nal architecture, however, did not cater to the comfort for minimizing human losses emanating from structural of the inhabitants.