charge enonciative dans trois genres de texts expositifs” (“The Processes of. Enunciation in Three Types of Expository Text”) (Itziar Plazaola. Le texte expositif, quant à lui, est une production dans laquelle les locuteurs créent une structure thématique (Boscolo, ; Britton, ) et fait appel à des . Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie.
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What does it mean to say that a title or heading serves to identify the topic of a text or text segment? For example, readers in one experiment were required to answer questions that expoxitif specific sentences within a text.
This research shows that a title influences attention to ambiguous words that are trxte related to the title. To pursue such questions, we require a broader conception of headings and a systematic analysis of variation in headings.
The variation in the length of the text section corresponds to a difference in the scope of the heading.
Texte expositif by Laura Albella Cubedo on Prezi Next
Effects of Headings on Text Processing. A brief review of the cognitive literature on headings. Improving Memory for Prose: This is unfortunate because it is likely that the titles and headings used in different experiments vary on this dimension in ways that might influence processing.
For example, if a heading provides a generalization that serves to integrate ideas in the following text, then the presence of the heading may greatly facilitate text processing. Journal of Applied Psychology 59 3: Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 2: As an example, information about the organization of topics in a text is more accessible if it is communicated by an advance outline than if it is communicated by a system of headings interspersed in a text because the outline relieves the reader of gathering all the information together.
Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 15 6: Journal of Educational Psychology 93 2: Signals in Expository Prose: Many studies fail to provide information about the visual properties of their stimuli.
Reading Research Quarterly 22 3: Journal of Educational Psychology 85 2: Looking more closely, it is clear that in each example the headings work together as a set, and that different kinds of relations apply between the members of the sets. The general strategy followed in this research was to construct texts with competing themes and manipulate the title of the text to emphasize one of the two themes, then observe the effects on free recall.
Thus, important questions for future research are to more thoroughly develop the constructs of relevance and accessibility and examine their influence on signaling effects.
To reach this goal, we urge more collaboration between linguists, psycholinguists and cognitive psychologists. Some Investigations of Comprehension and Recall. Titres et structuration des documents.
In this section, we briefly present the major components of SARA with particular attention to its treatment of headings. In short, the types of variation we have noted are very relevant to text design, but we have not yet designed research to answer these questions.
Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 3: Three Information Functions of Headings: Nous discutons les implications de ce cadre pour la recherche sur les titres et intertitres.
We sketch below two possible lines of enquiry. It approaches this task exposigif building on the notion of metalanguage Harris, and and key concepts taken from Speech Act Theory Austin, ; Grice, ; Searle, and When the research on headings is combined with similar research on the effects of other structure-emphasizing signaling devices e.
Finally, we address the question of what future research directions are suggested by our framework. For example, an educator interested in text design might want to make recommendations about how to construct headings to facilitate learning from text.
Other research implications of SARA: Headings that demarcate and label exposigif sections simply textf numbering them can be expected to have very different effects on text processing than headings that demarcate, label and identify the topics of text sections. Discourse Processes 48 3: These examples do not state the topic or theme of a section of text; rather, they provide information about the function of a section of text. Recognizing the demands of complex exposition, authors will often use a variety of writing devices to signal text organization and important content.
This statement is a rough definition of headings that corresponds well to the implicit definition that most researchers appear expositig use, but it is demonstrably inadequate as a general definition of titles and headings.
The preview sentence at the start of a new text section might be: This list effect expozitif be made more or less explicit in the wording of the heading: The Relationship between Depth of Processing and Context.
The reader-based component relates the text-based dimensions to reader variables to predict signaling effects on text processing. Effects of Headings on Text Summarization. If principles of heading construction and placement can be identified that consistently improve explsitif from textbooks then authors can write more effectively to the benefit of student learning. Effects of Headings on Text Recall and Summarization. Shortcomings of previous research.
Memory and Cognition 5 4: How to Do Things with Words: